Science and Culture of Chile
According to educationvv.com, the modern system of education in Chile is being built in accordance with the Uniform Constitutional Law on Education (1990). Compulsory is 9 years of education (for children 6-14 years old). Secondary education has a duration of 4 years and is divided into humanitarian and technical. Higher vocational education is provided by universities, institutes, and technical training centers (the latter provide the highest vocational qualification in 4-5 semesters). In 2000, total spending on education was 3.8% of GDP. Literacy among the population over 15 years old was 95.4%, 2.5 million students were enrolled in primary education, and approx. 1 million people The coverage of youth with higher education was at the level of 42%. Approx. 0.5 million students. Among state universities, the leading place is occupied by the University of Chile (founded in 1738 as the Royal University of San Felipe, reorganized in 1843, 20 thousand students) and the University of Santiago de Chile (founded in 1947 as the State Technical University, reorganized in 1981, 20 thousand students ). Among the private institutions of higher learning, the largest is the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile (founded in 1888, with 17,000 students).
Universities are the main base for the development of science and technology in Chile: in 2001, out of 7.2 thousand people employed in this area, 70.3% worked in university research centers and laboratories. St. 1.5 thousand Chilean engineers and specialists conduct research in the field of technology. In 2001, spending on the development of national science amounted to 0.57% of GDP, of which 64% was financed from budget funds, 23% was accounted for by enterprises and corporations, and the remaining 13% came from other national and foreign sources. In supporting the research activities of universities, the role of the state is even higher – 94.2% of the total amount of expenditures in 2001. The National Commission for Research in Science and Technology (created in 1967) is engaged in the development and implementation of state policy in this area. Within the framework of the commission, special funds and programs operate, the task of which is to ensure the effective distribution of financial resources, develop infrastructure and optimize the use of scientific personnel. An important role is given to modernizing and strengthening the national system of science and technology, stimulating public and private investment, incl. by concluding relevant agreements with ministries, enterprises, the Armed Forces and other institutions. The Chilean Academy of Sciences (established in 1964) and five other academies—medicine, arts and social sciences, politics and morals, and linguistics and history—are united under the Institute of Chile. In 1968, a national award for outstanding achievements in the field of science was established. In 2001 there were 18 independent academic centers in the country, St. 40 scientific branch centers,
The history of Chilean literature is traced back to the epic poem Araucana (1569-89) by Alonso de Ercilla y Zuñiga.
In the 20th century popularity is gained by such recognized authors as Jose Manuel Vergara, Baltasar Castro, Volodya Teitelboim, Jose Donoso, Isabel Allende, and others. The poets Pablo Neruda (in 1945) and Gabriela Mistral (in 1971) became Nobel Prize winners in literature. Symbols of all Spanish-language poetry of the 20th century. also became Vicente Huidobro and Nicanor Parra.
In 1857, the Municipal Opera and Ballet Theater was opened in Santiago. In 1917-18, the troupe of Anna Pavlova performed in this theater. The Municipal Ballet of Chile and the National Ballet enjoy well-deserved fame on the world stage. World fame won contemporary Chilean composers Sergio Ortega, Enrique Soro and Juan Orrego.
The folklore music of Chile enjoys great popularity in the world, especially the New Song movement, created in the 60s and 70s. on the basis of national traditions by young musicians (Victor Jara, Isabel and Angel Parra, Roberto Rivera, etc.). One of the founders of this movement is Violeta Parra, called the Great Folklorist of Chile.
General information about Chile
The official name is the Republic of Chile (Republica de Chile).
Located in the southwest of South America. The area is 756.945 km2, the population is 15.499 million people. (2002 estimate). The official language is Spanish. The capital is the city of Santiago (Santiago de Chile) (4.7 million, 1998). Public holiday – Independence Day September 18 (since 1818). The monetary unit is the peso (equal to 100 centavos).
Chile includes: a number of coastal islands and archipelagos (the largest of them are Chiloe, Hannover, Santa Ines), the western part of the island of Tierra del Fuego, the island of Sala y Gomez, and Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean.
Member of the UN (since 1949) and its specialized organizations, non-permanent member of the UN Security Council (in 1996-97 and since 2003), member of the OAS, LAI (since 1981), Leningrad NPP (since 1975), associate member of MERCOSUR (since 1996), APEC (since 1994), etc., signed an agreement on cooperation with the EU (1996).