The most important scientific center of the republic is the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, which includes 54 scientific organizations, 9 independent self-supporting design bureaus and pilot plants, 180 independent innovative enterprises. Scientific research in the National Academy of Sciences is carried out by about 7500 people, incl. 76 academicians, 104 corresponding members, 500 doctors and 1827 candidates of sciences.
In addition to organizations of the National Academy of Sciences, scientific research is also carried out by branch research institutes and higher educational institutions. 18,857 scientific and pedagogical employees work in 30 universities and institutions subordinate to the Ministry of Education, incl. 844 doctors and 6119 candidates of sciences. Most scientific organizations are located in the capital of Belarus – Minsk.
At the end of 2002, there were 58 higher educational institutions in the country, in which 320.7 thousand students studied. The largest universities are the State University, the Polytechnic Institute, the Agricultural Academy (Minsk); Pedagogical Institute, Technological Institute of Light Industry (Vitebsk); university (Gomel), pedagogical and medical institutes (Grodno).
According to Andyeducation, the number of day general education schools at the end of 2002 amounted to 4.5 thousand, incl. 108 gymnasiums and 23 lyceums. 1,408 thousand students studied in daytime general education schools, incl. 87.0 thousand in gymnasiums, 10.5 thousand in lyceums. 160.9 thousand people studied in 150 secondary specialized educational institutions.
In the country as of con. 2001, there were 134 museums (including branches), 27 professional theaters, 3.0 thousand film installations with paid screenings, 5.2 thousand libraries, 4.6 thousand club institutions. The number of visits to museums in 2001 was 3.9 million, theaters 1.9 million, film screenings 11.0 million, the number of library readers 4.5 million. Library funds amounted to 77.1 million copies.
The largest official periodicals are the newspapers Sovetskaya Belorussii, Narodnaya Gazeta, Respublika, Zvezda, Belorusskaya Niva, and For the Glory of the Motherland. Of the non-governmental and opposition publications, the most well-known are Belorusskaya Gazeta, Belorusskaya Delovaya Gazeta, Imya, National Economic Newspaper, Naviny, and Narodnaya Volya. The largest news agencies are the state agency Belta and the commercial Belapan.
The National State TV and Radio Company operates; there is one state TV channel and several commercial ones. Writers of Belarus are united in the Union of Writers, which publishes the newspaper “Literature and Art” (in Belarusian) and several literary magazines.
Among the most famous modern Belarusian writers are V. Bykov, I. Shemyakin, G. Borodulin, S. Aleksievich.
The largest and most famous theaters in Belarus are located in Minsk. Among them are the National Academic Bolshoi Opera Theater of the Republic of Belarus, the National Academic Bolshoi Ballet Theater of the Republic of Belarus, the National Academic Theater named after. Ya. Kupala (Belarusian), National Academic Drama Theater. Gorky (Russian), Belarusian State Youth Theater, etc.
General information about Belarus
The official name is the Republic of Belarus (Republic of Belarus). Located in the eastern part of Europe. The area is 207.6 thousand km2. The population is 9.899 million people. (2002). The official languages are Belarusian and Russian. The capital is the city of Minsk (1.7 million people, 2002). Public holiday – Independence Day (Republic Day). Since 1997, it has been celebrated on July 3, the anniversary of the country’s liberation from Nazi invaders. The monetary unit is the Belarusian ruble.
Member of the UN (since 1945), a number of its specialized organizations (UNESCO, UNIDO, WHO, IAEA, ILO, UPU, WIPO), IMF (since 1992), Non-Aligned Movement (since 1998), CIS (since 1991), Eurasian Economic Community ( EurAsEC) (since 2000).