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Category: Europe

Science and Culture of Belarus

Science and Culture of Belarus

The most important scientific center of the republic is the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, which includes 54 scientific organizations, 9 independent self-supporting design bureaus and pilot plants, 180 independent innovative enterprises. Scientific research in the National Academy of Sciences is carried out by about 7500 people, incl. 76 academicians, 104 corresponding members, 500 doctors and 1827 candidates of sciences. In addition to organizations of the National Academy of Sciences, scientific research is also carried out by branch research…

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Greece Population and Economy Between 1951 and 1971

Greece Population and Economy Between 1951 and 1971

The Greek population has increased quite considerably, in twenty years, from 7,632,801 residents from the 1951 census to the 8,768,641 of the 1971 census; the density rose from 57.6 to 66 residents per km 2. This apparently small density is actually high in relation to the mountainous area of ​​the country and the poor economic development. In fact, emigration is still today more than 20,000 people per year, while interregional population movements have been intense in recent years, and continue to…

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Switzerland Arts and Architecture in Antiquity and the Middle Ages

Switzerland Arts and Architecture in Antiquity and the Middle Ages

In Roman times, vast colonies and cities were born on the territory of the Helvetians where Roman influence was predominant. During the period of migrations and barbarian invasions, many settlements were transformed into fortresses (Basel, Lausanne, Chur, Zurich, etc.). Remarkable are the remains of monumental constructions (Augst theater, Windish amphitheater, Avenches walls), mosaics and paintings, sculptures and goldsmith findings (gold jewelry from Obfelden Zunnern, silver objects from Augst). Jewelery found in tombs (Basel, Historisches Museum) show relations with the contemporary…

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Lights and Twilight of the Papacy and the Empire in the Middle Ages – From Boniface VIII to Henry VII

Lights and Twilight of the Papacy and the Empire in the Middle Ages – From Boniface VIII to Henry VII

At the time in which Dante thus relived and almost reconstructed, ideally, the life of Italy, the empire was absent from the peninsula. Anti-imperial parties and forces prevailed, cities traditionally Guelphs or linked to Guelphs prevailed over others, Rudolf of Habsburg’s vicars had little recognition, neither he nor his immediate successors came to look for royal and imperial crowns in Italy. The kings of Germany began to operate within the narrow sphere of their countries beyond the Alps, that is, in the…

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Greece Public Finance Part II

Greece Public Finance Part II

The total revenue from taxes should not be thought of for the century. V too high, given the small extension that the different states had on average: in Athens itself, at the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, it did not exceed 5-600 talents per year; but a very burdensome substitute for tax burdens was represented by the lack of remuneration for the exercise of the highest courts, and by the expenditure that accompanied some offices, such as co-ordination, for which…

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France Population 1975

France Population 1975

On the basis of the census of February 1975, the population of France was 52,655,802 residents, With an increase of 5.5% compared to the census of 1968 (49,768,825 residents). The demographic recovery, which began in the years following the Second World War, has continued to this day: the birth rate remains, on average, between 15 and 16%, that of mortality at 11%. In the period 1963-74 the overall annual increase was almost 0.9%. One million French also contributed to the…

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Greece Public Finance Part I

Greece Public Finance Part I

In the sec. It goes. C. military expenses, which previously had burdened individual citizens, largely passed to the state. By extending the service of the heavy infantry to the citizens of the poor classes, it was justifiable to pay them for the heavy armor, and with the continuous development and prolongation of the wars it was not possible to do without passing on to the treasury the expenses for the maintenance of the army. . It should be added that…

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Germany Arts

Germany Arts

The history of German art of the last fifteen years is the story of the undoing of that high level of taste and figurative culture, in a plan of European values, which was created in Germany in the first three decades of the twentieth century. Expressionism, the abstractionism of W. Kandinskij, P. Klee, F. Marc and L. Feininger and the Bauhaus of W. Gropius (which arose in a German environment despite the different nationalities of their supporters), are among the most live…

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Sweden in the 17th Century Part 2

Sweden in the 17th Century Part 2

The war with Poland, which broke out shortly after, overshadowed domestic political issues. In 1655, Carlo Gustavo invaded Poland, conquered Warsaw and Krakow and soon became the master of the country. The elector Frederick William of Brandenburg received East Prussia as a fiefdom from the king of Sweden. Meanwhile the Polish people were rebelling everywhere, the Russians invaded Livonia and in 1657 Denmark finally declared war. From the Polish theater of war, Carlo Gustavo made his way in forced marches…

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Sweden in the 17th Century

Sweden in the 17th Century

The unfolding of events made war against Poland inevitable. It was first fought in Livonia, where the Swedes suffered a defeat at Kirkholm in 1605; later, however, in Russia, at that time in full internal disintegration, and in the border districts between Finland and Russia. A considerable worsening of the situation in Sweden occurred in 1611, when war also broke out with Denmark. In the same year Charles IX died; his son Gustav II Adolfo (1611-1632) ascended the throne of…

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Bordeaux in France

Bordeaux in France

Bordeaux is most likely to be associated with the famous red wine Bordeaux, which comes from this area. But you can not only enjoy the wonderfully drinkable wine here, Bordeaux is also an excellent University town. The entire region is also known as the political, economic and spiritual center of the southwest of France . The history of Bordeaux 230,000 people, who by the way are called Bordelais, live here. Bordeaux is also the capital of the Aquitaine region and…

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Weimar and Greetsiel

Weimar and Greetsiel

Weimar, the fourth largest city in Thuringia after Erfurt, Gera and Jena, is the heart of German cultural history and is always worth a visit. German world literature and art history meet here. Weimar was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1998. Guests from all over the world are enchanted by the charm of bygone times. The city’s cultural heritage impressively reflects the Weimar Classic era around Schiller, Goethe, Wieland and Herder. Weimar is also ideal for study…

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Sights in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Sights in Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which has been independent since 1992, has numerous entertainment options to offer primarily to nature lovers. Your holiday destination is largely characterized by a densely forested mountain landscape and parts of the Pannonian Plain extend in the north of the country. In the country’s cultural center, Sarajevo, you will encounter three religions when you visit the cathedrals, the Jewish synagogue or the imperial mosque. That is why the capital is also called Little Jerusalem…

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Turkey Industries

Turkey Industries

Natural resources According to Youremailverifier, Turkey has a number of different mineral resources and is one of the world’s most important chrome ore suppliers (mining mainly near Guleman, Fethiye). In addition, the mining of copper ore and barite is of international importance. Other important mining products are lignite, hard coal, crude oil as well as iron ore, bauxite and borax. Energy industry The most important energy sources are natural gas, mostly imported from Russia and Iran (share of total electricity…

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Romania Parliamentary Elections

Romania Parliamentary Elections

Parliamentary elections were held on December 9, 2012, in which the USL government camp run by Ponta, which the UNPR had also joined, won around 58.6% of the vote and 273 members of parliament. The PSD received 33.1% of the votes and 150 members of parliament. The opposition PDL could only win 52 seats (2008: 115 seats). President Băsescu instructed Ponta on December 17, 2012 to form a new cabinet. On December 21, 2012, the parliament approved the new government…

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United Kingdom Population and Religion

United Kingdom Population and Religion

What else the country has to offer 30 of the world’s most famous places and attractions are in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, including Giant’s Causeway, Stonehenge, Tower of London and Hadrian’s Wall. As part of the UK’s diverse landscape, there are 15 national parks including Cairngorms in Scotland, the largest of the 15 parks, the beautiful New Forest in Hampshire and the famous Lake District in northern England. There are also 46 AONBs of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONBs)…

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Road Trip & Adventure in Spain

Road Trip & Adventure in Spain

If you love to experience new places at full speed, this tailor-made trip is for you! Roll down the window of your rental car and enjoy the Spanish countryside from San Sebastian to Barcelona. Along the way, you will get to know Spain better and physically challenge yourself with cool activities such as surfing in San Sebastian and rappelling, hiking and rafting at Espot. Your adventure begins at Bilbao Airport where you pick up your rental car on arrival and drive to…

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Bratislava, Slovakia City History

Bratislava, Slovakia City History

First settlements and founding of the city The first written references to today’s city of Bratislava can be found in the so-called “ Salzburg annals” from the year 907. A place called Brezalauspurc was mentioned in a document. Other spellings (for example in Johannes Aventinus from the year 805) give the name Braslavespurch or pressal expression. However, scientific studies have shown that the area around today’s Slovak capital was already settled in the Neolithic Age (around 5700 BC). These first…

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Amsterdam – Capital of the Netherlands

Amsterdam – Capital of the Netherlands

With around 740,000 inhabitants, Amsterdam is the largest city in the Netherlands and also its capital, although the seat of government is in The Hague. The city is located in the immediate vicinity of the IJsselmeer and not far from the North Sea. Amsterdam, which extends over 90 islands, was built on 5 million tree trunks. The city is still criss-crossed by countless canals, some of which were used as sewers in the Middle Ages and which today contribute to…

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Transportation in Austria

Transportation in Austria

ON THE GO Traveling by plane Austrian Airlines (OS) domestic flights (Internet: www.aua.com) operate between Vienna and Graz, Innsbruck, Klagenfurt, Linz and Salzburg. Flights to Altenrhein (Switzerland, on the Lake Constance border) are also offered from Vienna; from there shuttle bus to Dornbirn, Lustenau and Bregenz. There are also flight connections between Salzburg and Linz as well as Graz and Linz. On the way by car / bus Car: According to youremailverifier, in Austria you need a vignette (sticker) on…

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Kaliningrad Region Geography

Kaliningrad Region Geography

The Kaliningrad Region (Kaliningrad Oblast) is a relatively small exclave of the Russian Federation, which lies between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic coast and the Fresh Lagoon. It covers an area of ​​15,125 km² and borders two states: – Poland with a length of 206 km and – Lithuania with a length of 303 km. – although the region is part of Russia, it has no limit to it The Kaliningrad area has a coast to the Baltic Sea…

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Sights in Barcelona

Sights in Barcelona

It took a long time before linguists were able to agree on what to call the people of Barcelona. Barcelonese or Barcelonians? Hardly anyone could make friends with either version. Eventually they agreed on “Barcelonians”. For the people in the Catalonian metropolis, this will at best trigger a shrug, because they know one thing very well: Most Catalonians are convinced that their city is not only “beyond Spain”, but it is also a pearl on the Mediterranean. The residents of…

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Lisbon Travel Guide

Lisbon Travel Guide

Charming Lisbon is full of great food and spectacular architecture. Sunny Lisbon is an atmospheric and beautiful city destination. With its location in the westernmost part of Europe and the sunniest capital on the continent, the destination is diverse. Lisbon’s historic attractions, combined with a vibrant urban culture and nearby sandy beaches, will entertain both cultural enthusiasts and sun worshipers. The historic capital The Portuguese capital, Lisbon, is located right on the west coast of a country on the western edge of…

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Vatican City Public Policy

Vatican City Public Policy

Current policy Holy See is a country located in the region of Southern Europe. In March 2013, the Catholic Church’s Cardinals gathered to conclave at the Vatican to select a new Pope since Benedict XVI a month earlier unexpectedly chose to resign. The choice of new pope fell on Argentine Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Jesuit priest and former archbishop of Buenos Aires. Bergoglio differed in many ways from his representatives: he was the first pope from Latin America and the…

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United Kingdom Public Policy

United Kingdom Public Policy

Current policy United Kingdom is a country located in the region of Northern Europe. The British voters’ refusal to continue EU membership in June 2016 shook the political life. The question of the terms of the UK’s divorce from the EU, Brexit, and what the new relationship with the EU should look like, has since almost overshadowed all other political issues. Boris Johnson, from the Conservative Party, who took over as prime minister in July 2019, promised that Britain would…

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Ukraine Public Policy

Ukraine Public Policy

Current policy Ukraine is a country located in the region of Eastern Europe. Since a popular uprising led to a shift in power in 2014, Ukraine has been in a permanent crisis. “Brotherhood” Russia has turned into bitter enemy, the economic problems are gigantic and continued corruption undermines residents’ trust in their leaders. Now voters have set their hopes for a TV celebrity who is investing heavily in improving contacts with Russia, and he has more power than any former…

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Switzerland Public Policy

Switzerland Public Policy

Current policy Switzerland is a country located in the region of Western Europe. Switzerland’s system of unity government guarantees stability. Nevertheless, the spirit of consensus has crackled under bitter contradictions in recent years. The right-wing Swiss Nationalist Party (SVP) has been pushing its immigration and EU hostile line hard and, through a 2014 referendum, put the country in a legally and politically uncertain relationship with the EU. The domestic policy debate has long been focused on SVP’s immigration and crime,…

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Sweden Public Policy

Sweden Public Policy

Current policy Sweden is a country located in the region of Northern Europe. Since 2014, Sweden has a minority government consisting of the Social Democrats (S) and the Environment Party (MP). After the very smooth election in 2018, the government has support in Parliament by the Center Party and the Liberals. Government formation took a record time, only over four months after the election, Prime Minister Stefan Löfven was able to re-form government. For decades in Swedish national politics, there…

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Spain Public Policy

Spain Public Policy

Current policy Spain is a country located in the region of Southern Europe. Spanish politics has become increasingly polarized in recent years, where no party is strong enough to win its own majority in Parliament’s lower house, the Congress. The problems of getting a sustainable government in Madrid have led to four national elections in Spain between 2015 and 2019. By the beginning of 2020, it became clear that the Socialist Socialist Party (PSOE) and the Left Party Unidas Podemos…

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Slovenia Public Policy

Slovenia Public Policy

Current policy Slovenia is a country located in the region of Southern Europe. Slovenia has long been regarded as the most stable of the countries that arose during the disintegration of Yugoslavia, but has in recent years been characterized by political instability. Three consecutive parliamentary elections have been announced prematurely and in all cases newly formed parties became government leaders. In March 2020, however, the large right-wing party SDS returned to office and Janez Janša again became prime minister. In…

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